As already it has commented , we are almost safe that it arose, essentially, like base of operations for the construction of the Via Nova and his complementary installations, at least regarding the sector bracarense of the same.The chronological vicinity between his monetary and ceramic rests more ancient and the inauguration of the shod in the years 79/80 of the first century of the era, such as they indicate the initial signals of the route, do not do more than endorsing said suspicion. In all case, the military establishment does not seem to have long-lived further of the reign of Trajano (98-117), with what his useful life total hardly would reach the fifty years.
Another question, likewise discussed, has been the one of the military unit that occupied it. During a true time sustained that it would have been the Cohors I Gallica Equitata, whose presence detects , inside Gallaecia, in addition to in Três Mines (Portugal), in Cidadela (Sobrado dos Monxes) had to, in this last case, to the intervention, like master, of a prefect of this unit,Gayo Antonio Aquilo, in the pact with the Coelerni of the near Castromao. In the actuality, however, and to the recently realised discoveries, judge that it was a cohort legionary, specifically the III of the legion VII gémina, with headquarters of reference in Leon from the seventies of the first century. And this perceives , even, through the same architecture of the establishment, with the employment of diagrams very similar to the ones of the camp of Leonese base.
Anyway, the total surface of the enclosure, near to the 25.000 square metres, is possible that offered fit for some 500 legionaries, and some auxiliary of cavalry.
The outline and heaved of the structures, organised in grid around the two fundamental roads perpendiculars, of thistle (N-S) and decumanus (And-W), realised according to a common orthogonal diagram, except light variants, with other camps of the period. Anyway, the structural groups to date exhumed, total or partially, are the following: starting or general barracks, two big granaries for the storage of foods no perishable, Valetudinarium (hospital), three bunkhouses of the troop, roads and channels of drainage and defensive system (wall with his towers, carries pincipalis sinistra= left main door, carries decumana =south door, small sector of the pit and intervallum or road perimetral, also called sagularis).
1.PRINCIPIA OR GENERAL BARRACKS.
The principia of a military camp come to be as the medullary space of the same, since there they accommodated the essential organs of the administration, the destined holy fields to the cult and the custody of the banners and the moral strength of the military discipline.
In reality, this important edification orders around a square of 29 by 29 metres, more some frontal and lateral additions, arriving, of this luck, his total surface to almost 1.200 metres. From east to west, and therefore of out to inside, the space organises in the following fields: portico, forum, basilica and administrative sacral/area. The portico, of the class porticos-groma for projecting to the outside until invading partially the line of the thistle in the centre of the camp, place of the groma, and from here his denomination, results extremely original and is atribuíble to the called porticos legionaries, in this case with evident foundation.It possesses both runners apilastrados, to the outside, framing to the door of entrance two rooms, possible armamentaria or enclosures destindados to warehouse of arms, in both extremes of the wall with the forum, to the that give the vain of access to said stays.
After the portico, comes the forum, surrounded of runners with the ceiling supported on piederechos wooden in three of his sides. In the geometrical centre of the playground appeared the foundations of a plinth of statue, do not know if of emperor or of some divinity.
To continuation, and separate of the forum by a blind wall, possibly, save in the extremes, contemplates the basilica, a rectangular field of some 250 metres of surface, whose purpose was to house the concentrations of all type:administration of justice, arengas, some show etc.And, already attached to the wall of the bottom,. A rectangular central room with the floor raised some 60 centimetres on the one of the other six stays. It would treat of the aedes or sacral enclosure, in where they would show the statue of the emperor, the altar of Jupiter and the banners of the troop, whereas his contiguous, with the same bottom, but no the same width, would find allocated to tasks of the administration. Finally,by the flanks north and south of the building, existed open runners porticados to be able to circulate to the coat of the weather.
2.BUNKHOUSES OF THE TROOP (STRIGIA).
Until it dates it they have excavated two, in his whole, and a third half.However, the plant is identical in the three cases.
In reality, a bunkhouse of the troop composes essentially of two rectangular wings faced around an inner playground, that serves him of compluvium for the collected of rain water. A central channel drove it to the respective tank, in general provided of rim, situated, no in the geometrical centre but, rather, anchored to the interior of the field that mediates between both wings.
The bunkhouse supplied hostel to a centtenary of soldiers, with his respective controls, in total some 85 men.Each eight soldiers formed a contubernium , that lodged in two stays communicated between yes, but independent of the other of the century, adding the group ten units of these characteristics, six in one of the wings, more the body on call, and four in the opposite, since in an extreme of this last raised the house of the controls, call also of the centurión, already complicated in stays to the roman fashion.
There are excavated two contiguous between it, of uneven width ( 8´20 and 10´30 m., respectively), but of identical length ( 21 m.).They possessed strong walls perimetrales closely of a metre of width reinforced, in excerpst, with transversal buttresses projected so much to the interior as to the exterior. We think that this was been due to the pressure that the grain stored exerted on the laterall walls. The flat would be wooden and would be settled on alignments parallel of granitic pilot, that would allow the circulation of air for the conservation of foods, at the same time that would warn against the predatory activity of the rats. In one of the granaries has detected the presence of a chimney of ventilation.
Both, however, and in spite of being independent, possessed a porch of load and common download, to the pair that a previous zone porticada that defended to both buildings of the strong storms of the SW.
In the horrea saved the no perishable foods, from the cereals and dry legumes until the salty meats, the wines and the fats.They resulted essential to keep the logistics of the establishment.
4. VALETUDINARIUM (HOSPITAL).
Given his situation inside the group castrense are not insurances of the all of if this building corresponded to the hospital or to the praetorium, residence in this case of the tribuno of the cohort, mandamás of the garrison. In all case, have him attributed the first of the functions and go to describe it abiding by us the same.
It treats of an edification organised around an impluvium or central square playground surrounded of deambulatorios open by three of his sides, whose ceilings would download on piederechos wooden supported in a basement run of some sixty centimetres of height.To said corridors gave the entrances of the respective stays, in some cases provided of homes, that, with frequency, offer traces to having suffered reforms and modifications.
Fromthe central playground went out, by the wide existent entrance, a channel of drainage that prolonged until the outside of carries it decumana.no discovered , however, instrumental surgical any.
5.INNER ROADS AND SYSTEMS OF DRAINAGE
Already has said that the space campamental organises in grids, following the marked guidelines by the two master roads perpendiculars between himself: the thistle and the decumanus. However, while the thistle divides his sector in two rigorously equal parts, the decumanus does it of asymmetric way, leaving to the side of carries it prateoria a third of the surface and to the one of the decumana , more or less, two, subdividing, to his time, transversely this greater space by means of the outline of another narrower road, but parallel, the via quintana.
It subtracts only refer us to the road sagularis or perimetral, that identifies with the intervallum and possesses two fundamental functions: give exit and service to some bunkhouses of the troop and supply space for the installation of the ovens panificators of each century, resulting discernibles still some of his plants, always of circular profile or oval. Regarding the drainage, discover canalillos to evacuate pluvial waters in several zones of the military enclosure and almost always following the axis of the streets. It checks also that, in occasions, some drain in others and the resultant greater pipe looks for the entrances situated in the lowest height of the camp. Anyway, find absent the sewers conventional and neither perceives trace any of aqueducts that could have driven clean water from some distance.
In general, the channels derive of the distinct buildings to the public roads of the establishement. In the case of the principal offer a more look after execution, going out to the via paetoria they drain to lookt by the door decumana, converging with other drainages that, originated in the bunkhouses of the troop, fit by the intervallum and, even, by the via quintana.
6. THE DEFENCES (WALL, TORRES, DOORS, INTERVALLUM AND PIT).
It do not forget that we are speaking of a military fortress and that, therefore, the articulation of the defensive system resulted essential. Until it dates it, they have exhumed already extensive retazos of wall with his towers and his corresponding doors, which, and in spite of treating of partial rests, offer us the perfect diagram of all the defensive group.We know that the wall possessed a width of three metres, consisting of both lienzos lateral of containment raised with ashlars very careless to the outside. The inner filling did to base of masks amalgamated with clay, that came to constitute his core inform.To determinate distance, according to the length of the stretch in regard to the respective doors, intercalate a rectangular tower, noticing, in the actuality, the plants of the same to a bit more than the level of the foundations because of a salient outside of 10 cm. And interior of 50 cm.However, they exist also towers esquineras, situated in the angles of the camp, that offer trapezoidal plant and external profile rounded. In general, the distance between towers surpasses slightly the 28 metres in the long sectors from among doors, being minor in the cortosAdemás, have appeared in the filling of the foso retazos of cornices and finish of almenas, that come to show that form topped the wall.
On the other hand, the entrances, until the present exhumed, have been carries it principalis sinistra (left main door) and carries it decumana (door west), fitting suppose that each one of his opposite will have to offer, when they discover , identical characteristic.
The first of the alluded has double vain for the traffic, under arches of half point, framed both between rectangular towers of 10 by 5 metres each one of their. The wall would situate to some 5 metres of the floor, unknowing if the towers had an alone upper plant or two overlapped.
Instead, it carries it decumana possesses a vain solo for the traffic, being the other very similar characteristics to the ones of the previous.
It accessed to the towers by an open rear door in the low plant, by the side of the camp, articulating from that a system of wooden scales by which could rise until the upper plants of the towers and, of course, to the wall.
Besides, parallel by the outside with the perimeter of the wall, would run a pit in shape of V, of four metres of depth and other so many of mouth, that only interrupted to the height of the entrances.
The defences completed with the intervallum or road perimetral interior, of some 11 metres of width, that added to the other functions, in his moment described, the one to serve of separator between the inner constructions and the line of the wall in the case of attack with darts incendiary.